[58][59] Cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs. In the early 13th century, a new wave of invaders, the Mongol Empire, swept through the region but were eventually eclipsed by the Turks[citation needed] and the founding of the Ottoman Empire in modern-day Turkey around 1280.[93]. In our calendar, C.E. [94] The Hephthalites were the most powerful of the nomad groups in the 6th and 7th centuries, and controlled much of the region. In Mesoamerica, the Teotihuacan civilization fell and the Classic Maya collapse occurred. Productivity remained low, and climatic changes easily instigated boom-and-bust cycles that brought about civilizations' rise and fall. [citation needed]. [citation needed] These include the Yoruba city of Ife, noted for its art,[106] and the Oyo Empire, the Kingdom of Benin of the Edo people centred in Benin City, the Igbo Kingdom of Nri which produced advanced bronze art at Igbo-Ukwu, and the Akan who are noted for their intricate architecture. Nowadays, a phone, instant message, fax, or video conference call can easily be used to connect people throughout the world. But that doesn't mean that language necessarily began then. This industrial revolution began the modern world as we know it. Within the early modern period, some events shaped the world immensely: This period saw advances in industrial technology. It had developed an advanced monetary economy by 1000 CE. Against the Muslim Mughal Empire, the Hindu Maratha Empire was founded on the west coast in 1674, gradually gaining territory—a majority of present-day India—from the Mughals over several decades, particularly in the Mughal–Maratha Wars (1681–1701). On April 6, 1896, the Olympic Games, a long-lost tradition of ancient Greece, are reborn in Athens 1,500 years after being banned by Roman Emperor Theodosius I. This is what Martin did. Humanity has been hard at work for centuries to empower itself with better tools and insights, from science and surgery to electricity and the Internet, and this series celebrates the history of those triumphs. Starting in the 9th century, the Pagan Kingdom rose to prominence in modern Myanmar. Before the era of firearms, these nomads were militarily superior to the agricultural states on the periphery of the Eurasian continent and, as they broke out into the plains of northern India or the valleys of China, were all but unstoppable. In recent years, however, scholars such as Kenneth Pomeranz have challenged this view. During the High Middle Ages, which began after 1000, the population of Europe increased greatly as technological and agricultural innovations allowed trade to flourish and crop yields to increase. However, not all scientific and technological advances in the second half of the 20th century required an initial military impetus. The Kingdom of Kongo also thrived during this period. )[119][120] Modern history can be further broken down into periods: The defining features of the modern era developed predominantly in Europe, and so different periodizations are sometimes applied to other parts of the world. The real modern world view did not begin until the so-called "Enlightenment" of the mid 17th century. [e], The Cold War ended in 1991, when the Soviet Union disintegrated, in part due to inability to compete economically with the United States and western Europe. India and China were subject to periodic invasions, and Russia spent a couple of centuries under the Mongol-Tatar yoke. [131][contradictory](see see here - (self promotion?)). In 1369, Timur, a Turkic leader in the Mongol military tradition, conquered most of the region and founded the Timurid Empire. Between 1969 and 1972, as part of the Cold War space race, twelve men landed on the Moon and safely returned to Earth. China's Han dynasty fell into civil war in 220 CE, beginning the Three Kingdoms period, while its Roman counterpart became increasingly decentralized and divided about the same time in what is known as the Crisis of the Third Century. In the linear, global, historiographical approach, modern history (the "modern period," the "modern era," "modern times") is the history of the period following post-classical history (in Europe known as the "Middle Ages"), spanning from about 1500 to the present. (2003). with no intervening year zero. Other civilizations in Africa advanced during this period. Technological advance and the wealth generated by trade gradually brought about a widening of possibilities. This led to the Cold War, a forty-five-year stand-off and arms race between the United States and its allies, on one hand, and the Soviet Union and its allies on the other. From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Modern_history&oldid=6950937, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, Modernity, based on Modernism, explores the changes of society due to the, Postmodernity and Postindustrialism are theories to apply the art movement term of. This allowed Africa to join the Southeast Asia trading system, bringing it contact with Asia; this, along with Muslim culture, resulted in the Swahili culture. The 19th century was a time of significant and rapidly increasing change. [151] However, these newly independent countries often faced challenges in the form of neocolonialism, sociopolitical disarray, poverty, illiteracy, and endemic tropical diseases.[152][j][k]. Modern History is a result of hundreds of years of human … [84] The remaining part of the Roman Empire, in the eastern Mediterranean, continued as what came to be called the Byzantine Empire. For example, one of the most advanced civilizations of the Middle Ages was China. [citation needed] Intellectual life was marked by scholasticism and the founding of universities, while the building of Gothic cathedrals was one of the outstanding artistic achievements of the age. The modern period has been a time of many advances in science, politics, warfare, technology, and globalization. The barbarian invaders formed their own new kingdoms in the remains of the Western Roman Empire. The feudal period of Japanese history, dominated by powerful regional lords (daimyōs) and the military rule of warlords (shōguns) such as the Ashikaga shogunate and Tokugawa shogunate, stretched from 1185 to 1868. These developments led to the rise of territorial states and empires. The Inca Empire of Tawantinsuyu, with its capital at Cusco, spanned the entire Andes, making it the most extensive pre-Columbian civilization. [59] Cuneiform texts were written on clay tablets, on which symbols were drawn with a blunt reed used as a stylus. [citation needed] In Egypt, by contrast, first there was a dual division into Upper and Lower Egypt which was shortly followed by unification of all the valley around 3100 BCE, followed by permanent pacification. Although the most developed regions of European classical civilization were more urbanized than any other region of the world, European civilization had undergone a lengthy period of gradual decline and collapse. In Asia, the Maurya Empire (322–185 BCE) existed in present-day India;[73] in the 3rd century BCE, most of South Asia was united to the Maurya Empire by Chandragupta Maurya and flourished under Ashoka the Great. Pomeranz have challenged this view event in European History the Hellenistic period in the Netherlands East Indies, the saw. The three kingdoms being Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla Horn of Africa, this period follows... 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